History and Heritage
Beijing, the capital of China, is one of the world''s famous historical and cultural cities. As a city with more than 3,000 years of recorded history, Beijing served as the capital of five dynasties including Liao, Jin, Yuan, Ming and Qing for about 800 years. On Oct 1,1949, when the People''s Republic of China was established, Beijing once again became the newborn capital of China.
In the city, cultural heritage sites and scenic spots could be found everywhere, including the Forbidden City, the Great Wall, the Zhoukoudian Site, the Temple of Heaven, the Summer Palace and the Ming Tombs, all of which have been put on the list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites. By 2011, there are 162 museums and 4,300,000 heritage collections in Beijing attracting 35 million visitors.
In early 2005, the Beijing City Master Plan(2004-2005) received a formal approval from the State Council. The Master Plan defines the nature of Beijing as the capital of the People''s Republic of China, the national political and cultural center, a famous ancient capital of world and a modern international city. According to the Master Plan, Beijing would develop into a national capital, an international city, a famous cultural city and a livable city in the future.
In 2011, Beijing''s nominal GDP reached 1.62519 trillion RMB. Of this total, the value added of the primary industry was 13.63 billion yuan, the secondary industry was 375.25 billion yuan and the tertiary industry was 1.23631 trillion yuan. Its local public budgetary revenue was 300.63 billion yuan and local public budgetary expenditure was 324.52 billion yuan , up 27.7% and 19.4% over the previous year respectively.
Beijing serves as the headquarters of major national financial and insurance institutions. In 2011, among all financial institutions (including foreign financial institutions) in the city, the outstanding balance of RMB and foreign currency deposits totaled 7.50019 trillion yuan and the balance of loan totaled 3.96605 trillion yuan. The original insurance premium income of all insurance companies in the city totaled 82.09 billion yuan and the stock market trading volume reached 7.91031 trillion yuan.
Beijing develops it general commercial layout and business facilities according to the requirements for an international modern city. It has constructed several large-scale commercial and cultural centers with good shopping environment and culture atmosphere. Nowadays, Beijing is an attractive place for delicacy where one can almost enjoy any kind of cuisine in China and delicious food around the world.
Beijing has formed a modernized three-dimensional traffic network. In 2011, there are 749 bus lines, 22,000 operational buses , 15 rail transit lines and 67,000 taxies serving the city.
By 2011，there are 4.983 million registered automobiles in Beijing, including 3,897,000 private cars. As one of the biggest road and railway hubs in the country, Beijing has been connected with most of large and medium-sized cities in the country by non-stop trains. In 2011, the city''s highway and railway passenger volume reached 1,299.180 million and 97.55 million respectively. Beijing is also the center of airlines in china, its civil aviation passenger volume were 61 million in 2011, increasing 4.7 million year-on-year.
Beijing is promoting prevention and control of atmospheric pollution. In 2011, there are 286 days meeting or over the air quality standard (Class II Level) accounting for 78.4% throughout the year.
Beijing is strengthening water environment management. In 2011, its daily treatment capacity of city sewage reached 3.69 million cubic meters and city sewage treatment rate was 81.7%. Furthermore, the city also made new progress in using 710 million cubic meters reclaimed water.
Beijing is actively pushing forward other efforts of environmental pollution prevention and control. Its harmless treatment rate of life garbage reached 98.2% in 2011.
Beijing is accelerating urban landscaping. In late 2011, average green space per capita of urban residents was 15.3 square meters, the urban ratio of green space reached 45.6% and rate of woody plant coverage reached 54% around the city.
Beijing is the largest science and technology research base in the country. In 2011, the city has 61 million science and technology professions. Research and development (R & D) intramural expenditure was 93.66 billion yuan, accounting for 5.76% of its GDP. There are 77,955 patent applications and 40,888 granted patents throughout the year.
As the most developed region in education around the country, Beijing is the national leader in making the nine-year compulsory education universal and the first one entering the higher education popularization stage. In the end of 2011, Beijing had 89 general universities including the most famous ones in the country, such as the Peking University, the Tsinghua University, the Renmin University of China and the Beijing Normal University. There are 57.9 million undergraduates and junior college students in school. The city has a total of 52 institutions of higher education, 79 research institutions and 24.1 million graduate students.
The regional exchanges between Beijing and the other countries around the world have been strengthened increasingly in economy, trade, science and technology, education and culture, etc. Under the comprehensive, multi-level and wide-ranging external relationship, Beijing has established the sister-city partnerships with 42 countries and 46 cities. There are 39,141 foreign students studying in the colleges and universities of Beijing. Beijng have successfully hosted the 11th Asian Games, the 4th World Conference on Women, the 21th World University Games and other major international conferences. In addition, the 29th Olympic Games has been held in Beijing successfully. Beijing has held 15 times of the Beijing International High-tech Expos and 6 times of the Beijing International Cultural and Creative Industry Expos.
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